Alain Leroy Locke (1886-1954)


alain locke

Photo taken by Gordon Parks/The Gordon Parks Foundation

Alain Locke was born September 13, 1886 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Pliny Ismael Locke and Mary Hawkins Locke. Pliny Locke obtained a law degree from Howard University and worked as a mail clerk in Philadelphia, while Mary Hawkins Locke worked as a teacher. The Locke’s were engaged for 16 years and only had one child, Alain. When Alain Locke was six years old, his father died, forcing his mother to financially support him through teaching. At some point in his childhood, Alain Locke contracted rheumatic fever, permanently damaging his heart and restricting his physical abilities. Consequently, Locke spent much of his childhood reading and playing both the piano and violin.

A 1949 note written by Locke revealed both his reflection and struggles with the intersectionality of his identity: “Had I been born in ancient Greece, I would have escaped the first [his sexual identity]; in Europe, I would have been spared the second [U.S. racial segregation policies and discrimination]; in Japan I would have been above rather than below average [height].”

In his short life, Locke made several notable accomplishments. One of Locke’s most notable accomplishments was that he became the first African-American and openly gay man to be awarded a Rhodes scholarship to Oxford University. Furthermore, Locke is credited as one of the “originators” of the Harlem Renaissance and New Negro movement. Locke contributed to both movements by: promoting and emphasizing values, diversity, and race relations; and encouraging and challenging African-Americans to identify, appreciate, and embrace their cultural heritage–along with the traditions of other cultural groups–while simultaneously making the effort to integrate into the larger society.

Locke was clearly well-educated, which established a foundation for his career and his role in both the Harlem Renaissance and the New Negro movement. From 1904 to 1907, Locke attended Harvard University, completing a four-year philosophy degree in only three years and graduating magna cum laude. While at Harvard University, Locke was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, a highly distinguished honor society, and won the Bowdoin Prize. Locke then attended Oxford University from 1907 to 1910, where he received another undergraduate degree in literature. Locke was the first African-American Rhodes Scholar. The next African-American Rhodes Scholars were not until 1963, when John Edgar Wideman and John Stanley Sanders were selected. While it is uncertain if the 1907 selection committee members knew that Locke was African-American when they selected him as a scholar [although evidence has been discovered that they may have known], it is certain that some of Locke’s fellow American colleagues were not “ready to share the pedestal with a black man” and refused to live in the same Oxford college. In 1911, Locke attended the University of Berlin in Germany. About a year later, Locke became an Assistant Professor at Howard University in Washington, DC. Locke later returned to Harvard University in 1916, where ultimately earned a PhD in Philosophy in 1918, before he rejoined the faculty as a full-time Philosophy professor at Howard University. In 1921, Locke became the chair of the Philosophy department at Howard University and remained in that position until he retired in 1953. Upon his retirement, Locke was awarded an honorary doctorate from Howard University. Throughout his academic career, Locke closely studied African culture and traced its influences on western civilization. Primarily through his career and efforts in vocalizing his ideas about the role of African-Americans in American society, Locke established close relationships to Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, Jean Toomer, Rudolph Fisher, and Zora Neale Hurston. Furthermore, Locke is said to have inspired Martin Luther King Jr., who considered Locke to be an “intellectual leader on par with Plato and Aristotle.”

Throughout his career, Locke made significant contributions to the field of philosophy. Locke emphasized the necessity of depending on and determining values to help guide human conduct and interrelationships. Furthermore, Locke praised the idea of respecting the uniqueness of each personality in a society because he believed that this respect would allow personalities and society to fully develop and remain unique within a democratic ethos. Locke also argued that race is a fabrication and that culture created visions and interpretations of race. This was a shocking statement to make during a time when he—and other African-Americans—faced segregation and discrimination daily. Locke is considered one of the founders of pragmatism. However, pragmatists did not include him in their history because they believed that his ideas were a reflection solely of African-Americans.

Locke familiarized American readers with ideas and key people in the Harlem Renaissance and New Negro movement. For example, Locke edited a special issue for Survey Graphic in March 1925, which expanded into the New Negro, an anthology of fiction, poetry, drama, and essays. Additionally, Locke edited the “Bronze Booklet” studies of cultural achievements by African-Americans, annually reviewed literature by and about African-Americans in Opportunity and Phylon, and frequently wrote about notable African-Americans for the Britannica Book of the Year. Locke’s published works include: Four Negro Poets (1927), Frederick Douglass, a Biography of Anti-slavery (1939), Negro Art: Past and Present (1936), and The Negro and His Music (1936). Before his untimely death, Locke was working on a manuscript for a definitive study on the contributions of African-Americans on American culture. While this manuscript was left unfinished, it formed the basis for Margaret Just Butcher’s The Negro in American Culture (1956).

Locke encouraged African-American painters, sculptors, musicians, and other artists to utilize African sources for inspiration in their work. Specifically, Locke encouraged artists to reference African sources to better understand African and African-American identity and discover African-based materials and techniques to create and express different art forms. In literature, Locke pressed African-American authors and writers to explore subjects in African and African-American life and to set high artistic standards for themselves. Additionally, Locke was an early advocate for recognizing the importance of African-American slave songs and spirituals to better understand America’s musical history. Locke claimed that “the very element that make them [slave songs and spirituals] spiritually expressive of the Negro make them, at the same time, deeply representative of the soil that produced them…They belong to a common heritage.”

Locke died on June 9, 1954 in New York City at the age of 68.

After his death, Locke was cremated and his ashes were given to his close friend and executor, Philadelphia activist and educator Arthur Huff Fauset. When Fauset died in 1983, his niece, Conchita Porter Morrison, contacted Rev. Sadie Mitchell to act as an intermediary between Morrison and Howard University.

In the mid-1990s, J Weldon Norris, Howard University’s coordinator of music history, was visiting St. Thomas Church for a concert when Rev. Mitchell approached Norris, asking to give him Locke’s cremains to take back with him to Howard University.

Locke’s papers are housed in several gray archival boxes at Howard University’s Moorland-Springarn Research Center. Locke’s cremains were also stored inside a brown paper bag in the research center. The paper bag was inscribed with “Cremains given to Locke’s friend Dr. Arthur Huff Fauset. Arthur is deceased. I kept the remains to give to Howard. —The Rev. Sadie Mitchell, Associate of St. Thomas Church.” In 2007, the cremains were transferred to Howard University’s W. Montague Cobb Research Laboratory in 2007. This lab also housed the remains from New York’s African Burial Ground along with 699 [mostly] African-American skeletons. Mack Mack, the director of the lab, ensured that the cremains were repackaged in a simple urn. Locke’s remains then stayed in the urn at the lab until spring 2014.

60 years after his death, Locke was finally given a permanent resting place at Congressional Cemetery (Range 62, Site 90). The funds for Locke’s inurnment and memorial service were planned and funded by African-American Rhodes Scholars. Locke’s plot location is very fitting—his plot is adjacent to the first director of the Smithsonian’s National Museum of African Art, Warren Robbins. Locke was not buried with his mother at the Columbian Harmony Cemetery because the cemetery is now a metro station. In circa 1959, 37,000 graves from the Columbian Harmony Cemetery were transferred to Landover, but these graves were left unmarked.


Locke’s black granite gravestone is inscribed with four symbols on the western elevation. The symbols are: a 9-pointed Baha’i star; a Zimbabwe bird, representing the African country formerly called Rhodesia, which the American Rhodes community adopted; a lambda, representing gay rights; and the Phi Beta Sigma symbol. A simplified reproduction of a bookplate created by Harlem Renaissance painter Aaron Douglas sits at the center of the stone. The emblem portrays a dramatic art-deco depiction of an African woman’s face set against a sunburst. The words “Teneo te, Africa” translate to “I hold you, my Africa.”

Works Cited:

“Alain Locke Biography.” Encyclopedia of World Biography. Accessed January 16, 2019.       

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Alain Locke.” Encyclopædia Britannica.                              September 09, 2018. Accessed January 16, 2019.                                                                    

Emanuel, Gabrielle. “Alain Locke, Whose Ashes Were Found In University Archives, Is                      Buried.” NPR. September 15, 2014. Accessed January 16, 2019.                                           

Haslett, Tobi. “The Man Who Led the Harlem Renaissance-and His Hidden Hungers.” The                   New Yorker.   May 31, 2018. Accessed January 16, 2019.                                                     

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“It was a scene I can never forget”: The Greely Expedition

As I write this, Washington, D.C. is officially entrenched in winter. Temperatures have plummeted and winds are gusting. It’s unpleasant, to say the least. However, in researching this article, I’m immensely grateful for my warm winter coat, my mostly-desk job, and the space heater I employ if I’m a tad uncomfortable. Any mild discomforts are put to shame when compared to the disastrous Lady Franklin Bay Expedition. The members of this ill-fated entourage, better known as the Greely Expedition, suffered far worse a fate than dry skin and chilly toes.

Many are perhaps more familiar with the famous British Franklin Expedition, which set out for the Artic in 1845. The Franklin ships became entrenched in ice, and ultimately the entire expedition was lost (until recently – but that’s a different story). The American Greely expedition departed over thirty years later but was similarly beset by troubles. Twenty-five men departed Newfoundland for the Artic in 1881. In 1884, when the party was finally rescued, only seven remained – and only six made it back to safety. The first to perish was William Cross, who is buried at Congressional Cemetery.

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Greely Expedition Crew. National Archives. William Cross noted by red arrow.

The goals of the Greely Expedition were twofold: first, to establish a research station to collect weather observations; second, to reach a new “Farthest North,” the highest latitude reached by explorers, and a record long held by the British. The expedition used Fort Conger, their camp on Ellesmere Island, as their home base. The trip was designed to take a year: the U.S.S. Proteus dropped the expedition off on the island and a relief ship was scheduled to arrive in the summer of 1882. However, a relief ship never came.

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Fort Conger, completed. Inuit Jens, Lt. Greely, Cross and Lt. Kislingburg haul ice. Library of Congress.

Anticipating problems, the expedition came with three years of supplies. However, after the relief ship still had not arrived in 1883, First Lieutenant Adolphus Greely made the executive decision to abandon Fort Conger and relocate to Cape Sabine, as the Army had planned to drop supplies at three points further south in case they were unable to reach the men at Fort Conger.  The party endured a traumatic journey south to Cape Sabine, and once they arrived, they were not rewarded for their sacrifices. There was only a small cache of supplies at Cape Sabine, enough to last only an additional few weeks.

From there, as the popular saying goes, things went from bad to worse, and this certainly was the case for William Cross. Cross was an engineer for the expedition, and overall was not well-liked by the rest of the expedition. His disposition was surly and he often overindulged in alcohol. His drunkenness – and the many incidents of falling into water that resulted – made it into the pages of others’ journals. In August 1882 Greely wrote:

“The engineer is drunk today. He fell from the launch into the water, where he would have drowned if he had not been rescued by Brainard. I learned from Lieutenant Lockwood that he had stolen a portion of the alcohol which was sent for the launch for fuel on the late trip up Archer Fiord, and was drunk at that time. He evidently avails himself of every opportunity to purloin and conceal a portion of the fuel alcohol sent out with parties.”

Alcohol problems aside, Cross also endured numerous other ailments over the course of three years. He suffered frostbite in his feet and his ear as well as a painful toothache that resulted in a swollen cheek. By the time the party arrived at Cape Sabine, Cross was already an unhealthy man. He persisted throughout the fall, but by January 1884, he grew weak and was unable to leave his tent. He died on January 18, 1884 of scurvy and malnutrition. On the following day, Sergeant Brainard described the services for Cross and noted poignantly:

“One cannot conceive of anything more unearthly – more weird and solemn – than this ghostly procession of emaciated men moving slowly and silently away from the wretched ice-prison in the uncertain light of the Arctic night, having in their midst a dead comrade about to be laid forever in the frozen ground. It was a scene I can never forget.”

The situation did not improve for the rest of the party. Following Cross, men continued to die of starvation, hypothermia, and drowning. One member, Private Henry, was even executed for stealing shrimp from the community pot. By the time a rescue party finally made it to Cape Sabine, only seven, near-death men remained, including Lieutenant Greely. One man died on the journey home from his wounds, leaving a remaining six men alive.

The remains of the fallen members of the Greely Expedition were retrieved at the time of the rescue. Cross’ body was transported to his home of Washington, D.C., and he was buried in Congressional Cemetery. According to his obituary, 5,000 people cycled through the Cross residence to view William Cross’ casket prior to the funeral. The victims of the disaster were lauded as heroes.


William Cross headstone. Epitaph reads: William H. Cross. Born January 20, 1845. Perished while exploring the Arcic Region under Lieut. Greely. January 18, 1884. at rest.

For the survivors, however, the story was quite different. Rumors of cannibalism tainted the reputation and the achievements of the Greely Expedition. Many of the rescuers claimed that the recovered bodies showed evidence of cannibalism, and some families of the deceased upheld these disturbing claims. Greely continued to deny these rumors until his death – even appearing in a diorama depicting the expedition at the 1893 World’s Fair in Chicago.

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Diaorama of the Greely Expedition, at the 1893 Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition, showing Lt. A.W. Greely, U.S. Army, welcoming Lt. Lockwood and Sgt. Brainard back to Ft. Conger. Library of Congress.


To end on a gruesome note – while it is possible, and even probable, that cannibalism did occur, it is unlikely that William Cross’ remains suffered this fate. As the first to die before starvation truly set in for the party, it is improbable that his fellow team members used him for that purpose, and they certainly wouldn’t have resorted to digging up his frozen remains when the situation became truly dire. William Cross – likely all of him – is buried in Range 90, Site 299. Though not well loved by his comrades, the courage he exhibited in going on this mission in the first place should be remembered, especially on wintry days like today.

Lauren Maloy, Program Director


Website that includes summaries, photos from the expedition, and journals. American Experience: The Greely Expedition.

Bytes of History: William Cross articles and obituary:

“The Greely Expedition. Alleged Cannibalism.” Daily News. New York, August 12, 1884.

Urness, James. 25 Brave Men: Tales of an Arctic Journey. Tucson: Wheatmark, 2013.



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Veterans at Congressional Cemetery

On November 11, 1919 “Armistice Day” was first observed to commemorate the first anniversary of the end of the first World War. In 1926, the United States Congress called for annual observance of the end of World War I and by 1938, November 11 became a national holiday. In 1954, “Armistice Day” officially evolved into “Veterans Day,” which honors all people who have served in the military–both the living and the dead.

            Although Veterans Day occurred last week, we wanted to highlight some of the veterans who are buried or inurned at Congressional Cemetery. Some of the veterans featured in this blog post likely sound familiar to you, while other veterans are not as well-known. A veteran from several of the major conflicts in U.S. history has been selected, and information about their lives and military service is shared. While we do not have the exact number of veterans who are buried at Congressional Cemetery, we do know that the number is in the thousands.

Revolutionary War: Jacob Gideon


            On March 3, 1841, Jacob Gideon, 87, died in Washington D.C. Jacob Gideon served in the Revolutionary War as a trumpeter and a private in the Pennsylvania Militia. Two of Gideon’s descendants, Philip F. and John B. Larner, are members of the Columbia Historical Society and the Sons of the American Revolution.

On January 29, 1863, it was reported in The Evening Star that a marble “statue about three feet tall, in a standing position, with the hands folded across the breast, representing, Meditation” had been stolen from Congressional Cemetery.

The War of 1812: General Alexander Macomb

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In 1799, General Macomb was first commissioned in the U.S. Army, where he helped negotiate treaties with the Cherokee Nation. In 1802, General Macomb was commissioned into the Army Corps of Engineers. While in the Army Corps of Engineers, General Macomb spent five years in charge of coastal fortifications in the Carolina’s and Georgia. General Macomb attended West Point as both a student and an officer, and he eventually became appointed as a judge advocate. Consequently, General Macomb wrote a treatise on martial law and the practice of court-martial, which established standard work for the U.S. Army.

Right before the War of 1812, General Macomb was promoted as a Lieutenant Colonel. During the war, he became a Brigadier General and he was in command of the frontier of northern New York. As a result of his conduct in the Battle of Plattsburg, where he successfully fought an invasion made by British forces that were larger than his own forces, General Macomb was promoted to Major-General. In May 1828, President John Quincy Adams appointed General Macomb as the Commander General of the U.S. Army. General Macomb held this position until his death in 1841. President Adams attended his funeral, along with all of the “Officers of the Government, both Houses of Congress, the Diplomatic Corps, [and] Military and Naval Officers.”

The Mexican War: Truman Cross


Truman Cross was born in Prince George’s County, MD in April 1776. At the age of seventeen, Col. Cross enlisted as an Ensign of the 12th Regiment of Infantry. During the War of 1812, Cross served in Maryland before he joined the staff of General Taylor. Cross was killed in service during the Mexican War on the Rio Grande while serving as the Quarter Master General for the Army of Occupation. It is believed that Col. Cross was captured and taken into Mexico.

The Civil War: Littleton Quinter Washington

Col. Washington was a well-known newspaper correspondent and writer for political affairs in DC for about fifty years. Col. Washington was born in Washington D.C. on November 3, 1825 and died on November 4, 1902 in the home of his brother-in-law, Dr. Warwick Evans.

After the start of the Civil War, Col. Washington fled to the south and joined the Confederate military. Soon after enlisting, he became appointed as the Chief of Clerk of the Department of the State of the Confederacy. In this position, he had “confidential relations” with Secretaries Benjamin and Hunter. By the end of the Civil War, Washington was the acting Assistant Secretary of the State of the Confederacy.

After the Civil War, Col. Washington returned to Washington D.C. and began his career as a newspaper correspondent on political affairs. In 1869, Col. Washington entered the press gallery as a writer for the National Intelligencer and a correspondent for the London Telegraph. He was also a correspondent of the New Orleans Picayune and other southern newspapers.

Col. Washington never married and spent fifty-four years living with Dr. Warwick Evans. His bachelor apartments were described as being filled with “rare books,” which Col. Washington enjoyed reading. Furthermore, Col. Washington was very knowledgeable about southern history, and he frequently entertained distinguished statesmen.

Col. Washington had been confined to his room for the last year and a half of his life, and he had been confined to his bed for the last five months of his life. Col. Washington spent the last week of his life destroying large quantities of his private papers, including all of his correspondences and his personal journal.

Right before his death, Col. Washington told his niece that he would die just like his mother had–by choking. A few minutes later, he was seized with convulsive choking and passed away.

Col. Washington is related to the Washington, Mason, Stuart, Dade, Foote, Strother, Lund, and Townshend families of Virginia.

The Civil War: Benjamin F. McAlwee


            McAlwee worked at the Navy Yard in Washington, D.C. In 1961, McAlwee enlisted in Company B, 1st District Volunteers for three months. After three months passed, he re-enlisted in Company D, 3d Maryland Volunteers for three years. McAlwee then re-enlisted, serving until July 1865. In total, McAlwee engaged in twenty-seven engagements during the Civil War.

On July 30, 1864, McAlwee, who was part of Company D, 3d Maryland, was serving in Petersburg, Virginia. During combat, McAlwee picked up a shell with a burning fuse, threw it over the parapet of a trench, and saved the lives of many men in his company. Consequently, he was awarded the Medal of Honor by Congress for “most distinguished gallantry in action.”. After his service, he worked as a watchman in the Treasure Department for thirty-five years.

World War I: Elizabeth Lambert Hebb


Hebb was the daughter of Clement Dorsey Hebb, a former Marine Corps Commandant. During World War I, Hebb served as a Yeomanette. In 1919, Hebb joined the Veterans Administration, where she worked for twenty-three years. She composed several songs and piano compositions, where were performed during recitals in Barker Hall of the YWCA in Washington D.C.

World War I: Samuel Walter Sowerbutts


Captain Sowerbutts was killed in Jametz, France on November 10, 1918–the day before the signing of the Armistice that ended World War I. Captain Sowerbutts quickly advanced in the U.S. Army. He was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant shortly after World War I was declared and was appointed as a Captain-Adjutant of the “6th” before he was deployed to France. Captain Sowerbutts was a cadet at Business High School but had no real military experience prior to enlisting in the Army. Captain Sowerbutts’ remains were brought back to the U.S. in 1921. His remains were interred in the Public Vault and then were buried in the family plot in October 1921.

World War II: George Spiegel

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George Spiegel was a lawyer who specialized in public utility law. He was a founding partner of the Washington-based law firm Spiegel & McDiarmid (1967). In the 1960s, Spiegel legally represented several municipalities in the electric, power, and gas businesses in cases against for-profit entities. His cases were presented before federal agencies, the U.S. Court of Appeals, and the Supreme Court. Spiegel initially became interested in utility law after he successfully challenged bus fare increases proposed by the Capital Transit Company (later known as the D.C. Transit System). In 1971, Spiegel won a case before the Supreme Court that challenged a large company’s attempts at collecting payments from a smaller municipal power for backup service.

George Spiegel was born in Salem, MA and graduated from Amherst College in 1941. During World War II, Spiegel served with the Navy in the South Pacific. He then went on to receive a law degree from Harvard University before working with the Office of the General Counsel of the Navy Department. Until 1960, Spiegel served as a legal member of the Navy Contract Adjustment Board.

Spiegel was also a longtime supporter of conservation efforts. For example, in 1995, Spiegel donated over 700 acres of lakefront land in Vermont to the Vermont Land Trust and the Nature Conservancy of Vermont and New York. Additionally, Spiegel made another donation of nearly 500 acres, which completed a 20-mile black bear migration corridor in Central Vermont.

Additionally, Spiegel was actively involved in the Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays of Metro D.C. by serving as a spokesman for fifteen years.

On October 23, 1997, Spiegel died of a stroke in his home in Silver Spring, MD.

The Korean War: James Messer Ruedin, Sr

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Reudin served in the U.S. Army during the Korean War. From 1954 until 1961, Ruedin worked in the advertising and purchasing department at the New York Daily News. From 1961 until 1991, Ruedin was the Vice President of Niemand Brothers and Niemand Industries. Ruedin died in 2005.

The Vietnam War: Leonard Matlovich


Sgt. Matlovich served in the U.S. Air Force for twelve years. Sgt. Matlovich was awarded a Bronze Star and a Purple Heart for his service. While serving in Vietnam, Sgt. Matlovich stepped on a Viet Cong land mine, and he killed two soldiers during a Viet Cong attack while on sentry duty.

Sgt. Matlovich was dishonorably discharged in the military because of his sexual identify. The military banned gay men and lesbians from the military under the premise that they would be susceptible to blackmail. For five years, Sgt. Matlovich legally challenged his discharge in military and civilian courts. Sgt. Matlovich’s case drew national attention and became a symbol of the struggle to end discrimination against lesbians and gay men. Ultimately, Sgt. Matlovich settled out of court with the Air Force for $160,000 and agreed to give up his battle for readmission into the military. Sgt. Matlovich became active in the gay and lesbian battle for equal rights, and he was active in several organizations involved with AIDS.

Sgt. Matlovich made his decision to legally challenge the military’s ban on gay men after conversing with Franklin Kameny. At the time, Sgt. Matlovich had served in the Air Force for about eleven years, and he was a technical sergeant and human relations specialist at the Langley Air Force Base.

In September 1975, Sgt. Matlovich’s picture appeared on the cover of Time Magazine, making him the first openly gay man to appear on the cover of a widely circulated national magazine. Matlovich died of AIDS on June 22, 1988.


Schmidt, Sandy and Rebecca Roberts. “4. In The Line of Duty.” In 2007 HCC Commemorative Book. 2007.On file at Congressional Cemetery.

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National Day of Service and Remembrance

In 2009, the Edward M. Kennedy Serve America Act made September 11 an official, federally recognized holiday. Since then, Americans across the country have been volunteering with various organizations for the September 11 National Day of Service and Remembrance. The purpose of the day is to serve as a way to honor those who passed away in the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 and to reawaken the spirit of unity that brought people from all over the country together after the devastating attacks.

Every year, Congressional Cemetery serves as one of the host sites for the National Day of Service and Remembrance. This year was no different. On September 8, 2018, we hosted approximately 250 volunteers at the cemetery. The volunteers worked on a total of ten projects.

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Posing after completing their project. Photo taken by Sean McCoy.

One of the biggest projects was the creation of two gravel pathways in the eastern section of the cemetery. The pea gravel, which was a mixture of sandstone and sand, was selected based off of a poll that the cemetery posted on social media. One portion of the path had to have metal edging installed along the perimeter, which involved a lot of physical labor. Meanwhile, the portion of the path that leads to and surrounds the Methodist Memorial has brick edging that was dug up by our Grounds Conservation Manager, Kymberly Mattern. The bricks used in the brick edging are the same bricks that historically lined a gravel pathway around the memorial.


Working hard to install the metal edging. Photo taken by Sean McCoy.

Another team was responsible for pulling weeds and re-mulching the flower beds on Mausoleum Row. If you visited in the cemetery in late July and August, you likely noticed that the flower beds were overgrown. The team pulled all of the weeds out of the flower beds, added a new layer to serve as a barrier for the weeds, and re-mulched the flower beds. Their work significantly enhanced the view of Mausoleum Row while also benefited the health of the plants.

A smaller team was also responsible for maintaining some of the abandoned plots in our Adopt-a-Plot program. They focused primarily on adopted plots near the gatehouse and around the chapel. Additionally, a different smaller team was responsible for pulling weeds in the historic cobblestone swales, near where the new pathways were created. This team went above and beyond—they also dug up some of the cobblestones that had been buried under years of sediment, dirt, and debris. Concurrently, another team worked on pulling weeds outside of the cemetery, near Barney Circle. This particular area was severely overgrown and was unsightly. Their efforts improved the view of the cemetery that people have when turning on to 17th Street.

In previous years, one of the projects was to paint the fence that runs along E Street and Potomac Avenue. This project was finally completed this year. A large group of volunteers applied a Rust-oleum black paint to the fence, which will help extend the life of the fence by acting as a protective barrier to the iron.


The rain held out for us, so the fence was able to be painted. Photo taken by Sean McCoy.

Finally, another team worked on pruning trees around the cemetery. Trees in every part of the cemetery were pruned to approximately 6 feet in height, helping to restore the historic viewshed of the cemetery.


Working together to trim some of the limbs off of a tree near the chapel. Photo taken by Sean McCoy.

The work done by the volunteers on Day of Remembrance always makes a huge difference on the grounds of the cemetery. Since there is a small staff and an even smaller grounds crew, the work that was completed on Day of Remembrance is equivalent to a year’s worth of work on the grounds—all done in a day. The cemetery wouldn’t be as beautiful as it is today without the hard work of all of the volunteers. It is our hope that this event instilled the same sense of unity and community that this country experienced after 9/11 and that the volunteers held the victims of 9/11 and their loved ones in their hearts while volunteering at the cemetery.

We are incredibly grateful for Frager’s Hardware Store and Subway for supporting the volunteers for Day of Remembrance by providing supplies and tools (respectively) for the event.


People of all ages came out to volunteer last Saturday. Photo taken by Sean McCoy.

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Tombs and Tomes Book Club Celebrates Five Years

If I’m being completely honest – which I’ve decided to be – Tombs and Tomes book club was started on a whim. My former colleague Margaret and I wanted to be a part of a book club, and after perusing programming and events at other cemeteries, I discovered that there was in fact precedent for this, such as the Boneyard Bookworms book club at Laurel Hill Cemetery. With approval and participation from my boss, and a promise that it wouldn’t take up too much staff time, we searched for a whimsical name and began to recruit book club members. But since its admittedly selfish beginnings, Tombs and Tomes has grown beyond the bookish whims of a couple cemetery coworkers. Tombs and Tomes is still evolving, but for the most part, this programming mainstay is all grown up.

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HCC mascot Doug Graves at our first Tombs and Tomes meeting.

As luck would have it, the very first book club meeting coincided nicely with one of cemetery’s admittedly much higher-profile events: the first visit of the goats in 2013. As the entire staff fielded interviews that August, a reporter perused our list of events and honed in on our first book club meeting. Looking back at the WTOP interview, it’s both interesting and embarrassing to read between the lines – I didn’t have a clear vision of what the book club would be, only that we would read macabre books and well, discuss them. Luckily the reporter made it sound much better, and many of the attendees at the September 2013 meeting came because of that article.


First Tombs and Tomes meeting.

Our first book selection was Stiff, by Mary Roach. It was a fitting selection for our off-the-wall book club, and it set the tone for our future meetings. From there on out, Tombs and Tomes primarily read non-fiction books, and we focused on the darker side of the genre: our early picks included Devil in the White City by Erik Larson, Smoke Gets in Your Eyes & Other Lessons from the Crematory by Caitlin Doughty, and Assassination Vacation by Sarah Vowell. The book club still meets every other month, and while I used to have to go through the “chore” of compiling a book list for members to vote on, now everyone sends more than enough recommendations to populate the voting ballots. We’ve even been lucky enough to have authors Skype in to our meetings (Hannah Nordhaus, writer of American Ghost, and Brady Carlson, writer of Dead Presidents, to name a couple) – and once, we even had the author show up to our meeting in person. We were all pleasantly surprised when author Sheri Booker showed up to talk about Nine Years Under in 2015.

sheri booker

Meeting with author Sheri Booker (Nine Years Under)

This wouldn’t work for any other program, but not having a vision of what this program should be has contributed to its success. Tombs and Tomes has taken up a life and spirit of its own. We have a few original members, but many have also come and gone, and the life cycle of Tombs and Tomes has also begun to change the kinds of books the group selects. We’ve read quite a bit about funeral homes and serial killers (I told you it gets dark), and now the group has started to turn to a few fiction books for the selections, including Lincoln in the Bardo by George Saunders and The Immortalists by Chloe Benjamin. Tombs and Tomes has garnered Congressional Cemetery docents and volunteers, donors and event supporters – but honestly, that’s almost beside the point, even if it’s a wonderful side benefit. At its heart it’s the purest kind of program, without pretense. Tombs and Tomes isn’t a fundraiser, and it’s certainly not the biggest program the Cemetery hosts, but it brings together an interesting group of people to discuss a unique selection of books, with a little wine and levity on the side. So in closing: happy birthday, Tombs and Tomes! Here’s to another five years of cozy meetings about not-so-cozy subjects.

You can find out more about Tombs and Tomes, including our reading lists, at

Lauren Maloy, Program Director

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The Public Vault



In the middle of the cemetery, there is a vault like no other vault in a U.S. cemetery. This vault is called the “Public Vault,” and, unlike receiving vaults at other cemeteries, its construction was fully funded by Congress in the mid 1830s. The Public Vault was intended to be used as a temporary holding place for bodies while funeral arrangements could be made. Anyone had the ability to use the Public Vault. However, the general public paid $5.00 to use the Public Vault. $1.50 of this $5.00 went towards the sexton for his services, while the rest of the money went towards the improvement and maintenance of the grounds. Congressmen, on the other hand, had free access to the Public Vault. The remains and bodies of over 3,000 people have been placed temporarily in the Public Vault. Most bodies only stayed in the vault for one to two days because the vault was never meant to be a permanent burial-place for anyone.

The bodies of several notable people have been placed in the Public Vault, including Vice President John C. Calhoun, First Ladies Louisa Adams and Dolley Madison, and Presidents John Quincy Adams, William Henry Harrison, and Zachary Taylor. President William Henry Harrison’s body was in the Public Vault longer than he was in office. First Lady Dolley Madison’s body remained in the vault for about two years before James Causten, Dolley Madison’s niece’s father-in-law, had her body moved to the Causten family vault across the pathway. Dolley Madison remained in the Causten vault until her interment at Montpelier in 1858.

The Public Vault was made out of Aquia Creek sandstone. This particular type of stone was readily available along the Potomac River, could be easily carved, and had “warm tones.” Unfortunately, the stone is not the most durable.

In the 1930s, the Public Vault fell out of regular use. This is, at least in part, due to the increasing popularity of embalming and the use of funeral homes along with advancements in transportation. 

In 2003, the Public Vault was in “sad shape,” with doors hanging by a “thinning strip of a wrought iron hinge.” Consequently, the federal government allocated funds to pay for the restoration of the Public Vault.

The doors of the Public Vault recently had improvements made to them, and a railing was added to the stairs on the interior of the vault. Additionally, the interior and exterior both received a fresh coat of paint (using a lime-based paint), and dirt was removed from the top of the vault to allow the plaster to breathe. Today, the vault is used for various events at the cemetery, and is a popular stop on tours through the cemetery.

Written by Kymberly Mattern


Johnson, Abby Arthur., and Ronald Maberry. Johnson. In the Shadow of the United States Capitol: Congressional Cemetery and the Memory of the Nation. Washington: New Academia Publishing, 2012.

Roberts, Rebecca Boggs., and Sandra K. Schmidt. Historic Congressional Cemetery. Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 2012.

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Celebrating Pride at Congressional Cemetery: the Lives of Kenneth Dresser and Charles Fowler

In March, I traveled to New York City to attend a short training course located at Woodlawn Cemetery. Having done an extensive amount of research on LGBTQ+ history for my Masters thesis, I made sure that visiting Stonewall Inn was a high priority during my stay in the city. I choose a table in the corner to sit at. I casually looked around, taking everything in and reflecting on the importance of the place I was in and its role in LGBTQ history. When I glanced behind me, I noticed the picture of Leonard Matlovich’s headstone hanging on the wall in Stonewall Inn. For those of you who don’t know, Leonard Matlovich is one of several LGBTQ+ people buried at Congressional Cemetery. Leonard Matlovich was a Vietnam War veteran who became the first active service person to out themself to the military to fight the military’s ban on LGBTQ+ people. A photograph of Matlovich was featured on the cover of Time Magazine in September 1975, making him the first openly gay person to appear on the cover of a widely circulated magazine. Seeing the picture of Matlovich’s headstone on the wall of Stonewall Inn was what made me truly understand that Congressional Cemetery also plays an important role in LGBTQ+ history due to its association with several people who were important in LGBTQ+ history, including Leonard Matlovich, Franklin Kameny, Alain Leroy Locke, Barbara Gittings, Kay Tobin Lahusen, Peter Doyle, Cliff Anchor, and several other people.




Photo taken by “DC Bike Blogger.”

Congressional Cemetery has a section of the cemetery that has been dubbed the “LGBT corner.” This corner began in 1988 with the burial of Leonard Matlovich, and has since expanded to include several LGBTQ+ people. During the peak of the HIV/AIDS crisis in the 1980s and 1990s, which had a huge impact on the LGBTQ+ community,. Many funeral homes refused to work with HIV/AIDS patients, and many cemeteries may have banned HIV/AIDS patients from being buried on their grounds. Leonard Matlovich was one of the many victims of HIV/AIDS, and his burial at Congressional Cemetery has surely inspired several other LGBTQ+ people to purchase plots at Congressional Cemetery.

Kenneth Dresser and Charles Fowler, who were partners, are two of the several LGBTQ+ people also buried at the cemetery. In celebration of Pride month, information about their lives are being shared to highlight some of the other LGBTQ+ people buried at Congressional Cemetery.

Kenneth Dresser was born in 1938, grew up in Westwood, MA and passed away at the age of 57 on September 8, 1995 in Washington, D.C. He shares his final resting place next to his partner, Charles Fowler. Their headstone is in the shape of a cube that is tilted on its axis so it appears as if it is standing on one of its corners. The stone can be seen right off of the main road when you enter the cemetery through the main gate.


Photo taken by Paul McClure.

Kenneth Dresser worked as an independent creative consultant, and was well-known for designing the Electric Light Parade at Disneyland, the Electric Water Pageant at Epcot, and the Fantasy of Lights at Callaway Gardens in Georgia. His designs have also been featured at the Kennedy Center, Super Bowls, world fairs, presidential inaugural balls, the Tournament of Roses, the Radio City Music Hall in New York, Caesar’s Palace in Las Vegas, and in France and Japan. Dresser’s work was not limited to light shows; Dresser also created illuminated costumes, neon lights, fiber optics, and special effects that incorporated stage fog and other computerized graphic effects. Dresser lived in Washington, D.C. with Fowler from 1964 until 1995. Like Leonard Matlovich, Dresser also suffered from AIDS, which ultimately resulted in his death.

Charles Fowler was an American writer and a consultant in the arts, focusing his efforts on advocating for arts education. Throughout his career, he wrote over 230 articles, books, and reports. From 1974 until 1989, Fowler served as the Education Editor of Musical America Magazine. Fowler also wrote several pieces of educational material for the New York Philharmonic, the Metropolitan Opera, the National Endowment for the Arts, and the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Additionally, Fowler wrote the grand opening of Epcot Center for Walt Disney Productions and the grand opening of Knoxville World’s Fair. He also was the writer for the annual Christmas pageant at the Crystal Cathedral in Garden Grove, California, several National Public Radio programs, and he prepared scripts for Gerald Ford among several other notable people. Fowler passed away at the age of 64 on June 11, 1995, almost exactly three months before his partner passed away.

Congressional Cemetery is hosting a few Pride events to commemorate the LGBTQ+ people buried at the cemetery, including Kenneth Dresser and Charles Fowler. These events include:

  • The Pride 5K on June 8 at 7:00 p.m. This event is now full, but you are welcome to come out to cheer on the runners.
  • An LGBT Tour on June 9 and on June 10 at 12:30 p.m.
  • A special Notes from the Crypt concert with Laura Tsaggaris on June 10 at 6 p.m. in the chapel

See for more information.


Nathan Paxton wrote an article on the representation of the HIV/AIDS endemic at Congressional Cemetery. His article can be viewed at:

The information for this entry came from Kenneth Dressler’s obituary and the introduction to Charles Fowler’s papers.

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Normal or Obsessive? The Case of Charles Larner

Death is making a comeback. Granted, it never left, but awareness and acceptance of death, mourning, and cemeteries is certainly on the rise. Congressional Cemetery staff are generally more aware of this since we’re in the “business” (said in an ominous voice), but all you have to do is attend one of our programs to see this public interest firsthand. It’s especially apparent at our more macabre-themed programs, such as Rebecca Roberts’ lecture on grave robbing, or our Tombs and Tomes book club meetings. People are curious about death and the topic itself is becoming less taboo.

This culture shift is heralded most notably by an organization called The Order of the Good Death, founded by Caitlin Doughty. The Order promotes what they have termed as the “death positive” movement, which is exactly what it sounds like. Being death positive doesn’t mean that you’re unafraid of death. Instead, being death positive holds to certain tenets, such as “by hiding death and dying behind closed doors we do more harm than good to our society,” and “the culture of silence and death around death should be broken through discussion, gatherings, art, innovation, and scholarship.” The Order of the Good Death hosts an annual event called Death Salon which brings together people to – you guessed it – learn and talk about death.


Congressional Cemetery staff members meet Caitlin Doughty at the 2015 Death Salon.

Historically, an interest or even fascination with death is nothing new. Victorians were famously obsessed with death and all things macabre. This obsession as a society lives on in the material culture, from iconography on headstones to mourning jewelry and postmortem photography.  It’s no coincidence that Congressional Cemetery’s heyday (other than right now, of course!) was the Victorian era, when visitors made cemeteries everyday destinations rather than forgotten landscapes designated solely for funerals. Fear, or more aptly, avoidance of death has more modern roots as death has slowly been sanitized and monetized in the twentieth century.


Song sheet cover, 1880-1890. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London:



Victorian brooch made with hair, 1842. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London:


While it may be incorrect to say that the Victorians embraced death, they acknowledged the omnipresence of mortality with a curiosity and creativity that puts their 21st-century counterparts to shame. Given this general acceptance, the case of one Charles Larner is all the more notable. Congressional Cemetery’s 2017 Programming, Writing, and Research Intern Katelyn Belz came across Larner’s file during a perusal of our archives and flagged it for future exploration. Unfortunately, the contents of his file are slim: they contain a simple obituary and a single Washington Post article from August 29, 1896. But the article speaks volumes about an unusual man absolutely obsessed with funerals.

In present day, Charles Larner would be labeled as having an intellectual disability; the 1890 article instead described Larner as “a child mentally up to the day of his death.” But the most interesting thing about Charles Larner is that he absolutely loved attending funerals, and was noted throughout Washington, D.C. for his fascination with the “obsequies of the dead.” The headlines for the article about Larner read:

His Fad Was Funerals

“Poor Charlie” Larner Will Go from the Next in a Hearse

All the Undertakers Knew Him

For Years He Delighted in Attending Obsequies of the Dead,

and When Young and Active Would Follow the Body to Its Last Resting Place –

Preference for Funerals When There Was Music – –

Much Funeral Display Always Pleased Him

Nineteenth-century newspaper articles didn’t mince words, and it’s understandable why this particular file caught Katelyn’s eye. The article goes on to paint a vivid picture of a man obsessed with attending funerals. He even went so far as to frequent undertakers’ businesses to inquire as to when funerals were scheduled, a practice often met with irritation and sometimes hostility. He loved walking in funeral processions, although later in life his “stout” figure prohibited extensive walking. Charles favored funerals which featured music or grand displays.


Hearse and Congressional Cemetery Chapel, 1913.

The most admirable aspect of Charles Larner, or at least as much as we can glean from a century-old article, is that he didn’t go to funerals to bear witness to tragedy or grief : “There was no morbid curiosity about him, and he seemed not to be impressed with the mournful side of such affairs. Apparently he found a genuine pleasure in being present at a funeral, and when the entire ceremony was over he appeared as much satisfied as if he had achieved something of great benefit to the community at large.” The last line of the article – and a dramatic one at that – speaks to his uncomplicated viewpoint on mortality: “Charlie has said a hundred times to Undertaker Gawler: ‘You’ll bury me when I die.’ And so he will.”

Let it be known (disclaimer here!) that no one is advocating that people pop in to funerals at any cemetery unless specifically invited. But a less literal interpretation of Charles Larner’s approach might be encouraged. Perhaps we can learn from the Victorians and their attitudes towards death, particularly Larner’s straightforward approach to the inevitability of his own demise. Regardless of personal interest in diving into this uncomfortable topic, at the very least this might temper any judgement about someone interested in learning about death. And if you are interested? Know that you’re not alone, and that there’s precedence for and now solidarity with your curiosity about the inevitable.

–Lauren Maloy, Program Director


The Order of the Good Death:

Full article about Charles Larner:  

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Tragic Tales at Congressional Cemetery: Strange Deaths

This week’s blog post, which is about strange deaths, concludes the “Tragic Tales” blog series. The “strange deaths” category focuses on people who died in an unusual way. There are several people whose stories fit this category, but only four of them will be shared in this post.

I hope that you will reflect on all of the stories that were shared today and over the past few weeks. All of these stories were difficult to read (and difficult for me to write). Take some time to reflect on these people and their stories. I hope that you remember each of these people and, if you get the chance, visit their gravesites

Please remember: The information that was gathered for each of these stories was pulled from historical newspapers, mainly The Evening Star. Back then, newspapers contained a lot more information about tragedies than we see today, including detailed information about how people were injured and/or killed. With that being said, please note that some of these stories contain information that can be considered graphic. All of these stories are sad. Read at your own risk.

John H. Yonson (Range 4, Site 25)


On April 29, 1871, Samuel Shreeve, a “druggist” (pharmacist) was in the middle of charging a soda fountain, specifically “pouring the vitriol,” when, suddenly, the fountain burst because the generator exploded, which caused pieces of the soda fountain to go flying. Fragments of the casing struck Shreeve in the left breast of the pharmacist, likely causing a fatal injury. An 18 year old clerk, John H. Yonson, was also in the store at the time. Yonson also received a fatal injury: a portion of the casing struck him on the legs, nearly severing the right leg and inflicted “ghastly” wounds on his left leg, likely requiring Yonson to get his leg(s) amputated. Drs. Coombs, Latimer, and Winston tended to the survivors. Initially, Shreeve’s recovery was extremely doubtful, and his condition improved. However, all of the doctors agreed that Shreeve would not fully recover from the accident. Yonson, on the other hand, ultimately died as a result of his injuries.

James Doughty (Range 7, Site 15)

            James Doughty worked as a flagman on a gravel train on the Baltimore and Potomac railroad. While aboard a train on February 20, 1875, he noticed that the switch was out-of-place and motioned for the train to stop. He then jumped off of the train to correct the switch. Unfortunately, there were icy conditions on that particular day. Doughty slipped on the ice and fell under the train. The wheels of two train cars passed over his head and the upper part of his body. Doughty left behind his wife, but the couple did not have any children.


William Grantham (Range 147, Site 215)


William Grantham, 35, worked at the plant of a gas company in SE D.C. While working at the coal chute, Grantham fell about 25 feet from a trestle and struck the ground. Grantham fractured his skull and his body was covered in cuts and bruises. Unfortunately, Grantham died in the hospital as a result of his injuries.

Howard Mack (Range 107S, Site 255)


            Howard Mack, 12, worked at Golden, Love, & Company, a box factory. During his lunch break on September 26, 1904, Mack was playing in the elevator shaft with his friends. Mack was descending a ladder and lost hold of the rungs, ultimately falling three stories. Mack severely injured his head, and ended up dying from his injuries about an hour later.

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Tragic Tales at Congressional Cemetery: Suicides

This week, four stories will be shared, all of which focus on people who, sadly, committed suicide. There were a wide range of known reasons why these people each committed suicide, including mental illness, heartbreak, work, and illness.

We now have far more resources available for people struggling with suicidal thoughts and mental illness. If you or someone you know is suicidal or in emotional distress, contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1‑800‑273‑TALK (8255). Trained crisis workers are available to talk 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Your confidential and toll-free call goes to the nearest crisis center in the Lifeline national network. These centers provide crisis counseling and mental health referrals. You can also call 1‑877‑SAMHSA7 (1‑877‑726‑4727) to get general information on mental health and locate treatment services in your area. 

Please remember: The information that was gathered for each of these stories was pulled from historical newspapers, mainly The Evening Star. Back then, newspapers contained a lot more information about tragedies than we see today, including detailed information about how people were injured and/or killed. With that being said, please note that some of these stories contain information that can be considered graphic. All of these stories are sad. Read at your own risk.

Anna Angell (Range 15, Site 223)

            On September 14 or 15, 1912, at the young age of 18, Anna Angell committed suicide by shooting herself right below the heart with a pistol that she borrowed from an unnamed young man. The pistol that she used was so close to the gown Angell was wearing that it caught on fire and was still on fire when police arrived on the scene. Angell died about an hour after later. Before she committed suicide, she wrote a note addressed to John Kashouty, a Syrian, which shed some light on why Angell may have killed herself. The note, which was round on a dresser in Angel’s room, said: “Dear John, Consider what I have done a mistake if you want to, but forgive me and remember it was all your fault. I loved you better than anyone else, even better than my life. You know, dear, if you had married me when you promised to this would not have happened. It is too late now. John, remember that I loved you better than any other girl ever will.” Angell had told her friends that she was engaged.

Angell worked in a fruit store on G St in NW DC and had recently moved closer to her work. On the day she committed suicide, Angell had asked her employer if she could leave early from work and ended up leaving around 3:30 p.m. She went up to her room and wrote the letter and changed into the gown before shooting herself a few minutes before 4:00 p.m. There were other boarders in the building at 728 10th St NW at the time of Angell’s death.

Thomas J. Rusk (Range 60, Site 93c)


Thomas Rusk, a Texas Senator, committed suicide by shooting himself in the forehead on July 29, 1857. Senator Rusk had suffered from depression after the death of his wife. He was also recovering from a severe illness and had a “rising on the back of his neck.” Rusk’s body was found on the ground behind the gallery at the back of the house, and there was a rifle underneath his body. Rusk was buried with Masonic honors.

Marie L. Jolley (Range 71, Site 276)


Marie Jolley was employed in the gathering room at the government printing office. Some of Jolley’s friends speculated that she feared losing her job because the force was being reduced. Jolley had also been separated from her husband, B.B. Jolley a doctor who had moved to Fauquier County after their separation. According to some of her friends, Marie Jolley was having a hard time handling the separation. Regardless, Florence Jolley, Marie Jolley’s high school-aged daughter, noticed something off about her mother on the night of May 14, 1907. Consequently, Florence Jolley decided to take her mother on a walk. The mother and daughter had an “affectionate good night” before going to bed that night. Around 7:30 a.m. on May 15, 1907, Florence Jolley went to wake her mother up so that she would make it to work on time when she discovered her mother’s lifeless body. When Marie Jolley was found, there was the end of a gas tube in her mouth, which was hooked up to the stove. Florence Jolley screamed, and other people in the house at the time ran to Florence Jolley’s side. It was determined that Marie Jolley had been dead for several hours before her body was found. Marie Jolley left no note, so the reason why she committed suicide was unclear.

Thomas Hunter Ware (Range 135, Site 244)

            Thomas Ware, 23, moved to Anacostia in circa 1892. Ware was a driver in one of the Anacostia cars before he became a horse dealer. Two years later, he met and almost instantly fell in love with Cora Lane, 18, who was described as a “pretty brunette, petite in figure, and with large, expressive dark eyes, jet black eyebrows, and curly black hair.” Lane and Ware’s worlds collided as Ware was friends with Lane’s uncle. Lane lived with another one of her uncles, Isaac Lane, who didn’t allow his niece to have company. Therefore, Ware and Lee secretly wrote letters to each other, and a young African-American boy, a “protégé” of Ware’s, delivered the letters. Ware and Lee signed and addressed the letters using numbers: Lane used No. 25 and Ware used No. 18. The couple had written over 200 letters to each other. However, the letters were burned. Lane’s aunt and uncle eventually discovered the letters and the relationship, and strictly refused Lane to continue to communicate with Ware. Consequently, Ware proposed to Lane. Lane then spoke to her father, an assistant pastor of a Methodist church in Baltimore, who decided that Ware and Lane could wed if Ware left the Catholic Church, which he was raised in, and became a Methodist. Essentially, Lane’s father could not and would not consent to her marriage to a Catholic, and Lane refused to disobey her father. Ware said that his Catholic ideas couldn’t be changed. Nevertheless, Ware still continued to pursue Lane to the extent that he threatened to commit suicide multiple times because Lane refused to marry Ware. Lane persuaded Ware multiple times not to commit suicide. On another occasion, Lane’s aunt convinced Ware not to commit suicide because she reminded him of his family and his family members would feel. On March 26, 1895, Ware visited Lane. He left her house around 4 p.m., likely after another rejected marriage proposal, and went to an office at C. Dodge’s livery stable on Harrison St. Once at the office, Ware wrote a note, which he then thrust in an unlit stove. The note said “Mr. Dodge: I have given George my key to my trunk and he will give it to you, and I don’t want you to give it to no one but my mother, and tell her that my letters in m trunk…let no one see them.” Herbert Martin and Ed Ferguson were also in the office at the time. Ware pointed a .32 caliber pistol with six chambers at his head, and told Martin and Ferguson that he was about to shoot. Martin told him not to shoot, and Ware hesitated. Sadly, Ware changed his mind and put the pistol to his side. Ware then fell forward on his face, and his clothing caught on fire from the blaze of the pistol. After six or seven gasps for air, Ware died. Friends of Ware’s revealed that about a week before Ware’s death, a valuable horse of his died, and an even more valuable horse went lame. Ware had also recently attempted suicide on two separate occasions. The first attempt was two Sundays before his death. The owner of the boarding house Ware lived at took the pistol from him. The second attempt occurred on the Sunday before his death, but, again, the owner of the boarding house he lived at took the pistol from him. Lane claimed that Ware once threatened to kill her if she didn’t marry him.

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